Waste are remainder products generated by consumption or production
activities that does not reach any economic value, between the context
in which they are produced.
Kind of Wastes
There are 3 types of waste generated by an industry:
Type 1: Wastes assimilable to urban
Fermentable (organic matter) or fuel (paper, cardboerd,p`lastic,wood,rubber,leather,cloth,etc.)
Type 2: Inert wastes
Wastes that does not mean and environmental risk (husk, scrap iron,
inert mud, ashes,dust, sand, cuts of plate, dreg and any other substance
that doesn`t need a treatment before its disposition).
Type 3:Toxic and Dangerous wastes
Wastes that are composed by such a concentration of constitutive substances
and materials, that according to the waste amount and shape presentation,
it maight give to it dangerous characteristics.
In general, the different in force standards, follow a common procidure
to establish a wastes danger:
That it is catelogued
inh the list as special
That it has, according
to the list, one or many of the substances seen as dangerous or toxic.
That beeing put
under toxicity or danger test, it is prove that it does not get trough
it , for what it has the corresponding danger characteristic.
Wastes cycle of life
Wastes Management Process
A waste Management Process in a first place must be focus on lowering
them, secondly, if possible, to recycle them or put them under treatment,
and finally, if they can`t be treated or recycled, send them to suitable
and sure places.
There are several ways to minimizate Wastes:
It is about lowerng or eliminating wastes generation trough an
inventory manegement or production modification processes.
It includes thecniques that allows wastes separation. It can be
-- Segregation: Waste`s different flows separation,
ussually in their origin.
-- Concentration: Volume reduction trough physic treatment.
-- Recycling: It is about the residue reusability
inside the same process that produced it, either directly or trough
a previous treatment.
-- Recovery: It is based upon the use of the generated residue in a
different process from the one that produced it, it can be directly
include or by some previous treatment.
Types of processing are divided into two groups:
that can`t lead to resources recuperation,recycling, regeneration, direct
reusability or other uses:
--Inside or on ground deposit (for example landfilling,etc.).
-- Ground treatment ( for example waterwastes or mud waste on ground
-- Specially designed filling ( for example: others and environment
spillings into tight, separetd covered and isolated compartiments, etc.)
-- Biological treatment that give place to compounds or final mixtures
that can be eliminated by any of this group operations.
-- Physic-chemical treatment that gives place to any of the compounds
or final mixtures that are eliminated trough any of this group operations
( for example: evaporation,drying,calcination, neutralization,precipitation,etc.)
--On ground incineration.
-- On sea incineration.
-- Permanent Deposit ( for example: to put containers in a mine,etc.).
-- Combination or mixtures made before than any of the operations indicated
on this group.
-- Repacking before the operations indicated by this group.
-- Storagering previous to any of the operations mentioned by this group.
that can lead to resources recuperation, recycling,regeneration, direct
reusability and other uses:
-- Fuel utilization (not in direct incineration)
or other mediums of energy generation.
-- Dissolvents recuperation or regeneration.
-- Organic substances recycling or recuperation that are not used as
-- Metals and metalic compounds recycling or recovery.
-- Other not organic matters recycling or recuperation.
-- Acids or bases regeneration.
-- Pollution lowering compounds recovery.
-- Compounds from Catalysts recuperation.
-- Used oils regeneration or reusability.
-- Ground treatment for agriculture profit or ecology improval.
-- Use of residue materials comming from any of the operations mentioned
-- Wastes exchange to sumit them to any of the operations numerated
-- Acumulation of materials destinated to any of the operations indicated
by this group.